عنوان مقاله [English]
The Iranian society of Qajar era, with the character of political authoritarianism, on the one hand, and the dispersion of traditional social forces, on the other hand, had left the modernity trend. In this situation, the Iranian reformers sought to reform political power and cultural renewal in touch with modernity and its developments. The social reformers, from the modernity and the Ottoman constitutionality, went from bottom to top to reverse the dependence on the colonial states and the reform of the tyrannical regime. Therefore, the present study, based on the theory of modernization and development crises of Leucin Pey, and the analysis of historical content, seeks to examine the main barriers of modernization and development in the Qajar government and the causes of the tendency of social forces towards the parliamentary system and public participation. Qajar, with its monopoly of sources of power, wealth, and its division among the ruling oligarchs, did not respond to their political behavior, and had fundamental weaknesses in the political system, the foundations of legitimacy and social solidarity, and for structural-functional reasons, reformist efforts from above Was not successful. This led to a coalition of elites and popular mobilization for political reform. The general movement of the society and their guidance from the social-religious reformers led to the adoption of parliamentary models and civic institutions that moderated political power.