عنوان مقاله [English]
In recent 19th century Shi`a clergymen entered politics by announcing Jihad against Russia and their presence in politics continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. This article recalls constitutional conflicts and studies the results of the probable presence of clergymen in political conflicts in two political and public levels. We also show the position of religion and clergymen in the Iranian society. This article claims that ignoring the various, ambiguous and changing nature of politics and reducing it to the right against wrong conflicts can reproduce the hostile and divided to “friend and enemy” atmosphere in the society and then threaten internal social solidarity and it also can downgrade the social position of the clergymen. Investigating the hostile and violent conflicts of the constitutional revolution and their consequences can prove this claim.