عنوان مقاله [English]
The author of the present paper has attempted to answer this question according to Spragnan's method, whether Attar’s thought and behavior can be pursued in the form of a policy? Therefore, it is believed that Sheikh Faraddin Attar, before everything, has spoken from humans lost and his environment to murder and robbery and to the rulers' irregularities and oppression. (it means that it starts by observing the failures and irregularities) but because observing improbity of the present situation does not make a remedy for any pain, so roots and causes of the improbity are also addressed. He asks himself if the circumstances are irregular, what its reasons are. Is the root of the problem, general and related to the society, or is it individual? He sees the problem as twofold, and after understanding the problem moves toward the desired and optimal society to determine which society is happy and healthy. Attar attempts to arrive to an optimal society to make a remedy for the contemporary people, which is "painless" with the same human beings, those people who are divided into twelve types of humans in his typology in the form of code and birds symbol.
These people should be hurt and reach to self-knowledge in order to be free from painlessness, irresponsibility, unkindness, attachment, extreme obsession, solitude, despair, captive of unstable love and comfort. He wants that obedient and commander beings from the present human beings who have the mentioned characteristics in the symbols. For this reason, it looks for the solution to release from suffer in human being. Although Attar's pain is a mystic pain, not intellectual pain, it means that the pain itself is awareness to achieve and to be united and fading away in God, not the reflection of external pains in awareness; therefore, he advised both commander and people to be hurt to be guided.