عنوان مقاله [English]
The Iranian society of Qajar era, with the character of political authoritarianism, on the one hand, and the dispersion of traditional social forces, on the other hand, was away from the modernity trend. In this situation, the Iranian reformers sought to reform political power and renew culture in touch with modernity and its developments. The social reformers, from the modernity and the Ottoman constitutionality, went to reverse the dependence on the colonial states from bottom to top and to reform the tyrannical regime. Therefore, based on the theory of modernization and the development crises of Leucin Pey, and the historical content analysis, this paper seeks to examine the main barriers of modernization and development in the Qajar government and the causes of this tendency of social forces towards the parliamentary system and public participation. Qajar, with its monopoly of sources of power, wealth, and its division among the ruling oligarchs, did not respond to their political behavior, and had fundamental weaknesses in its political system, the foundations of legitimacy and social solidarity, so as a result of structural-functional reasons, reformist efforts from above Was not successful. This led to a coalision of elites and popular mobilization in political reform. The general movement of the society and their guidance from the social-religious reformers led to the adoption of parliamentary models and civic institutions which moderated political power.