عنوان مقاله [English]
The purpose of the present study is to review Protestant religious reformation from political approach. The method of research is descriptive-analytic and the results showed that contrary to what is assumed, Protestantism was not a religious movement to revive religion and avoid Christianity abuse by the priests and the Pope; but rather it was a political movement against the Pope and his absolute authority aiming to prevent the emerging kingdoms then to take measures against the Pope's policy of dividing the world between the Spanish and Portuguese empires. Thus, they attempted to weaken the status and domination of the Pope. The effect of this movement in Europe was different from country to country, that is to say, this movement was successful in regions where the kings were against the Pope and sought powerful presence in the global realm while it was not really successful in other regions where the kings did not seek to be present in the international level and had insufficient power to fight against the Pope and his followers. Besides, this movement led to the birth of government-nations on the global level.